Getting along in Hebrew

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Hebrew (עִבְרִית, Ivrit) is a Semitic language, and is one of the two official languages of Israel.

Alphabet

Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet, which is an abjad, or consonant-only script of 22 letters. The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants, though some can function as vowels. Vowels are indicated with a system of dots and dashes next to the letters, but these are usually omitted except in Bibles and children's books. It is common for words, especially foreign words, to be spelled in more than one way.

letter Name of letter Standard Israeli transliteration
א Aleph See below
בּ or ב Bet b or v
ג Gimel g
ד Daled D
ה He h
ו Vav v (see below)
ז Zayin z
ח Het ch as in loch
ט Tet t
י Yod y or i
כּ or כ
(at the end of a word: ך)
Kaf k or ch as in loch
ל Lamed l
מ
(at the end of a word: ם)
Mem m
נ
(at the end of a word: ן)
Nun n
ס Samekh s
ע Ayin See below
פּ
(at the end of a word: ף)
Pe p or f
צ
(at the end of a word: ץ)
Tsadi ts
ק Kuf k
ר Resh r
ש Shin sh
תּ Tav t

The accent is usually on the last syllable.

Vowels

The letters "א" (aleph), "ה" (hay), "ו" (vav) and "י" (yod) are letters that can sometimes indicate a vowel instead of a consonant (which would be, respectively, ', h, v and y).

When they do, "ו" and "י" are considered to constitute part of the vowel designation in combination with a niqqud symbol – a vowel diacritic (whether or not the diacritic is marked), whereas "א" and "ה" are considered to be mute.

Letter Name
of letter
Consonant
indicated
when letter
consonantal
Vowel
designation
Name of
vowel designation
Indicated
Vowel
א aleph /ʔ/ ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô
ה he h ê, ệ, ậ, â, ô
ו vav v וֹ ḥolám malé ô
וּ shurúq û
י yud y ‏ִי Hiríq malé î
‏ֵי tseré malé ê, ệ

Basics Phrases

Hello - שלום. (shalom )
The English "Hi" is also used.
Bye - שלום. (shalom)
The English "Bye" is also used.
See you later להתראות. (le-hit-rah-'OT)
The most common farewell greeting, besides the English "Bye".
Good morning - בוקר טוב (boker tov)
Good afternoon - צהריים טובים (tsoh-hoh-RAH-yeem toh-VEEM) (literally
"good noon", afternoon is אחר-צהריים - ahar tsohorayim tovim)
Good evening - ערב טוב (erev tov)
Good night - לילה טוב (laylah tov)
How are you feeling? - addressing to a man - 
‫מה שלומך?‬ (mah shlomcha?' (ch as in scotish loch))
How are you feeling? - addressing to a woman-
‫מה שלומך?‬ (mah shlomech?)
How are you? - 
‫מה נשמע?‬ (mah nish-ma?)
What's up? (What's happening?)- ?מה קורה (mah ko-re?)
Thank you - תודה (todah)
Please/ You're welcome- בבקשה (be-va-ka-sha)
Excuse me - סליחה (sli-chah (ch as in scotish loch))
I don't understand (said by a man) - אני לא מבין (ani lo mevin)
I don't understand. (said by a woman)- אני לא מבינה (ani lo mevinah)
What is your name? (said to a man) -?מה שמך (ma shim-cha (ch as in scotish loch))
What is your name? (said to a woman) - ?מה שמך (ma shmech (ch as in scotish loch))
My name is... - שמי ("shmi...")

Pronouns

I - אני (ani)
You (singular, masc.) - אתה (ata)
You (singular, fem.) - את (at (as in "but" without the "b"))
He - הוא (hoo)
She - היא (hee)
We - אנחנו (anachnu (ch as in scotish loch))
You (plural, masc.) - אתם (ah-tem)
You (plural, fem.) - אתן (ah-ten)
They (plural, masc.) - הם (hem)
They (plural, fem.) - הן (hen)

Questions

Who? - ‫מי?‬ (mee)
What? - ‫מה?‬ (mah)
Where is ...? - ‫איפה?‬ (ey-fo?)
Where to? -‫לאן?‬ (le'an?)
Where from? - ‫מאיפה\מאין?‬ (me'eifoh?/me'ayn?)
When? - ‫מתי?‬ (matai?)
Why? - ‫למה?‬ (lamah?)
Why? ‫מדוע?‬ (madua'? )
How much? (also "how many") - ‫כמה?‬ (ka-mah?)
Where are you from?
When speaking to a male- ‫מאיפה אתה?‬ (me'eifoh ah-tah?)
When speaking to a female- ‫מאיפה את?‬ (me'eifoh aht?)
Do you speak English?
When speaking to a male- ‫אתה מדבר אנגלית?‬ (atah medaber anglit?)
When speaking to a female- ‫את מדברת אנגלית?‬ (aht medaberet anglit?)

Numbers

0
אפס (eh-fes)
1
אחת (ah-chat (ch as in scotish loch))
2
שתיים (shta-yim)
3
שלש (sha-losh)
4
ארבע (ahrba)
5
חמש (cha-mesh (ch as in scotish loch))
6
שש (shesh)
7
שבע (sheh-va)
8
שמונה (shmo-neh)
9
תשע (teh-sha)
10
עשר ('eh-sehr)
11
אחת עשרה (ahat-'esreh)
12
שתים עשרה (shtem-'esreh)
13
שלוש עשרה (shlosh-'esreh )
14
ארבע עשרה (arba'-'esreh )
15
חמש עשרה (hamesh-'esreh )
16
שש עשרה (shesh-'esreh )
17
שבע עשרה (shva'-'esreh)
18
שמונה עשרה (shmonah-'esreh )
19
תשע עשרה (tshah-'esreh )
20
עשרים ( 'esrim )
25
עשרים וחמש ( 'esrim ve-ha-mesh)
30
שלשים (shloshim )
40
ארבעים (ar-ba'im )
50
חמשים (cha-mishim (ch as in scotish loch))
60
ששים (shishim )
70
שבעים (shiv'im )
80
שמונים (shmonim )
90
תשעים (tish'im )
100
מאה (me'ah )
200
מאתיים (mah-ta-yeem)
300
שלש מאות (shlosh-me'ot)
1000
אלף (elef)
Half
חצי (chetsi)
Quarter
רבע (reh-va)
1%
אחוז (ah-chuz)
5%
חמישה אחוזים (chamishah achuzim)
100%
מאה אחוזים (me'ah achuzim)

Time

Today - היום (ha-yom)
Yesterday -אתמול (et-mol)
Tomorrow -מחר (ma-char)
The day after tomorrow - מחרתיים (ma-chra-tayim)


Days of the week

Sunday - יום ראשון (yom rishon )
Monday -יום שני (yom sheni )
Tuesday -יום שלישי (yom shlishi )
Wednesday -יום רביעי (yom revi'i )
Thursday -יום חמישי (yom chamishi )
Friday -יום ששי (yom shishi )
Saturday -שבת (shabat - shah-BAHT)

Colours

black - שחור (shah-chor (ch as in loch))
white - לבן (lah-van)
gray - אפור (ah-for)
red - אדום (ah-dom)
blue - כחול (kah-chol (ch as in loch))
yellow - צהוב (tsah-hov )
green - ירוק (yah-roq)
orange - כתום (kah-tom)
purple - סגול (sah-gol )
brown - חום (chum (ch as in scotish loch))

Transportation

bus - אוטובוס (Oh-to-boos)
Train - רכבת (Rah-ke-vet)
How much is a ticket to _____? - כמה עולה כרטיס ל (kamah 'ole kartis le___?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
כרטיס אחד ל___, בבקשה (kartis ehad le___, bevakashah)
Where does this train/bus go? 
?לאן הרכבת הזאת נוסעת?/לאן האוטובוס הזה נוסע (le'an hah-rah-kevet ha-zot nosa'at?/le'an ha'otoboos hah-zeh nosea'? )
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
?___איפה הרכבת ל___?/איפה האוטובוס ל (eifoh hah-rah-kevet le___?/eifoh ha'otoboos le___?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
הרכבת הזאת עוצרת ב___?/האוטובוס הזה עוצר ב(hah-rah-kevet hah-zot 'otseret be___?/ha'otobus hah-zeh 'otser be___? )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
מתי יוצאת הרכבת ל___?/מתי יוצא האוטובוס ל (matai yotset hah-rah-kevet le___?/matai yotse ha'otobus le___? )
When will this train/bus arrive to _____? 
מתי הרכבת הזאת מגיעה ל___?/מתי האוטובוס הזה מגיע ל (matai hah-rah-kevet hazot magi'ah le___? matai ha'otoboos haze magia' le___? )

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
איך אני מגיע/ה ל (eich ani magia le___?)
...the train station? 
תחנת הרכבת (...ta-cha-nat hah-rah-kevet (ch as in loch))
...the bus station? 
תחנת האוטובוס (...ta-cha-nat ha'otobus? (ch as in loch))
...the airport? 
שדה התעופה (...sde hah-teh'ufah?)
...Carmel Center? 
מרכז הכרמל(...merkaz ha-Carmel? )
..._____ hotel? 
מלון (...malon ___? )
Can you show me on the map? 
אפשר להראות לי במפה (efshar lehar'ot li bah-mapah?)
street - רחוב (rechov (ch as in loch))
Turn Left- שמאלה ('smolah )
Turn Right - ימינה (yeminah )
left 
שמאל (smol)
right 
ימין (yamin )
straight ahead 
ישר (yashar)

Food

I'm a vegetarian. - אני צמחוני /אני צמחונית (Ani tzimchoni (masc)/ Ani tzimchonit (fem))
breakfast - ארוחת בוקר (Aruchat boker)
lunch -ארוחת צהריים (Aruchat tzah-hah-rayim)
dinner - ארוחת ערב (Aruchat erev)
chicken- עוף (Off)
beef- בקר (Bakar)
fish - דג (Dag)
cheese- גבינה (Gvinah)
eggs - ביצה (Beitzah)
salad - סלט (Salat)
vegetables - ירקות (Y'raqot)
fruit - פירות (Peirot)
bread - לחם (Lechem (ch as in loch))
toast - טוסט (Tost)
noodles - נודלז (Nudelz)
pasta - פסטה (Pastah)
rice - אורז (Orez)
chickpeas/ Humus- חומוס (Chumus)
May I have a glass of _____? - אפשר כוס (Efshar kos)
May I have a cup of _____? - אפשר כוס (Efshar kos)
May I have a bottle of _____? -אפשר בקבוק (Efshar bak-book)
...coffee - ...קפה (Kafeh)
...tea - תה (Teh)
...juice - ...מיץ (Mitz)
...Sparkling water - ...סודה (Sodah)
...Still water - ...מים (Mayim)
...Bottled (Mineral) water - ...מים מינרלים (Mayim Mineralim)
...beer - ...בירה (Birah)
...red wine- ...יין אדום. (Yain adom)
...white wine- ... יין לבן (Yain lavan)
May I have some _____?- אפשר (Efshar)
salt- מלח (Melach)
black pepper - פלפל שחור (Pilpel shachor)
The check, please- אפשר חשבון, בבקשה (Efshar cheshbon, beh-vakasha)
Where is the bathroom ? - איפה השירותים ? (Eifo Hah-sheh-rutim?)

Other Useful Online Resources for Learning Hebrew

Getting Along in Arabic

See also Getting Along in Arabic - a language spoken by Arab minorities in Israel.